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4. The concavity of the walls of
the Great Pyramid
photograph rather fortuitously snapped by Brigadier General Groves and first
published in 1929 shows the vertical bisection of one of the sides of the Great
revealed by the sun illuminating only one half of this side. The
Great Pyramid therefore actually has eight sides, not four, but this
hollowing-effect is not visible to the naked eye. It does not
exceed 37 inches
on any face of the pyramid. Why would a tomb for a pharaoh have been designed to
have concave sides?
Figure 16. Photograph showing vertical
bisection of the south side of the Great Pyramid [Temple, The Crystal Sun]
Satellite image of the Great Pyramid,
bisected left side clearly visible.
5. An escape route for the soul of the King?
Pyramid remains one of the greatest mysteries ever. Its internal
construction is precise beyond comprehension, yet the official reason for its
very existence remains that it was meant as a tomb for
a king. Several shafts
were cut with utmost precision at oblique angles through tons of stone. Orthodox
Egyptologists maintain that these shafts were an escape route for the soul of
the king. A
robot with a camera was sent up one of these shafts, only to
discover that it was blocked by a small door (see below). A hole was later
drilled through this door, only to find another on the other
side. Could this
really have had anything to do with the soul of a king having to pass up this
shaft? Surely, as argued by many, there must be a scientific reason for the
existence of the
Figure 18. Internal structure of the Great Pyramid
The Great Mysteries of Archaeology - The Pyramids]
Figure 19. A ‘door’
blocking a Great Pyramid shaft
as filmed by a robot equipped with a camera [Von Daniken, Return of the
Read more about the secret doors here. Some interesting statistics and calculations on the
volume and number of stone
blocks in the Great Pyramid can be found here and here.
Apart from the Great Pyramid itself, numerous
ancient structures have been found with
masonry that is simply mind boggling.
How did the ancients manage to transport these massive blocks of stone and cut
it so accurately and seemingly effortlessly?
Figure 20. A 120-ton stone in a wall at
Sacsayhuaman, Cuzco, Peru [Alford, Gods of the
Figure 21. A 12-angled stone at
Cuzco [Alford, Gods of the New Millenium]
Jigsaw puzzle in stone, Sacsayhuaman, Cuzco
[Images of Anthropology]
Ollantaytambo, Peru, were cut from a porphyry quarry 8km away and 900m above
this site, on the opposite side of a river valley. The blocks, on average
1x2x3.8m in size (mass about 19
tons), therefore had to be transported that far,
down to the valley floor, across the river and then up a steep slope to
Figure 23. Ollantaytambo megaliths
[Hancock and Faiia, Heaven’s
Why go to all this trouble,
unless it was relatively easy to do? Can we repeat this exercise today without
the use of modern machinery?
Figure 24. “The absurdly difficult method
fitting the great granite blocks together” [Picknett and Prince, The Stargate
These blocks almost appear to have been finished off in
Figure 25. Unfinished obelisk (42m, 1200 ton) at Aswan
[Parry, Engineering the
How did they plan to raise and
transport this obelisk? What was this to be used for?
Figure 26. Baalbek foundation blocks
Figure 27. Baalbek monolith
A newly discovered megalith at Baalbek literally outweighs
anything similar discovered so far – a block of stone measuring 19.6 x 6.0 x 5.5
meters with an estimated mass of 1650 tons (Figure 27a) – read more here.
Scientists agree that the ancients had every intention to lift this block as
one piece – how would they have been able to so?
Figure 27a. Baalbek megalith weighing 1650 tons, with Graham
who, what for? Why was this technology lost?
7. Drilling, cutting and machining of stone
numerous ancient sites evidence has been found of stone blocks that have been
‘machined’, drilled or cut with high accuracy that seemingly would require 20th
century tools and equipment. Some of these are shown below.
Figure 28. A carved stone at Puma Punku displaying a
precision-made 6mm wide groove with equidistant drilled
holes [Alford, Gods of
the New Millenium, Ingold]
As recorded originally by Flinders Petrie
in 1883, the Egyptians had made use of tubular drills to cut into materials like
other types of stone: “These tubular drills vary in thickness from
1/4 inch to 5 inches in diameter, and from 1/30 to 1/5 inch thick. The smallest
hole yet found in granite is 2 inch diameter."
"...there is a still larger
example, where a platform of limestone rock has been dressed down, by cutting it
away with tube drills about 18 inches diameter; the circular grooves
intersecting, prove that it was done merely to remove the rock.”
It is unthinkable that such an advance technology could have existed in
ancient times. Why is there no trace of such
machinery to be found, yet ample
evidence of its former existence does exist? Technology developed by a nation or
group of people will continue to be developed and expanded, but a less advance
civilization who have not mastered the basic principles will in time lose this
Figure 29. Tube-drilled hole in granite [Lawton and
Ogilvie-Herald, Giza the Truth]
30. Tube-drilled piece of granite displaying spiral grooves characteristic of
tube-drilling [GEP, details below].
Figure 31. Granite drill-core [Lawton and Ogilvie-Herald, Giza the Truth]
Figure 32. Drill hole at the
Aswan quarries, 12 inches in diameter and 3 feet deep [GEP].
this can be done with relative ease, but requires sophisticated power tools.
Figure 33. Core drilling at Abusir [Ingold]
The ancients also seem to have mastered a method to saw through rock and
stone, as shown in the image below. There is no
indication of the ‘wobbling’ of
the blade that would be associated with a hand-drawn saw. It rather represents
the saw marks left by a rotating blade held steady.
An example of saw grooves found in basalt
blocks close to the Great Pyramid
Figure 34.b Additional examples of extreme
masonry, from Giza and South America by Lee Anderson (Thanos5150) at GHMB.
All done with ropes and primitive copper tools, of course.
The ancient Egyptians had the
technology to machine vases and other
objects from the hardest materials and in ways that we cannot perform today. The
vase below is described as follows [GEP]:
“At least one piece is so
flawlessly turned that the entire bowl (about 9 inches in diameter, fully
hollowed out including an undercut of the 3 inch opening in the top) balances
perfectly (the top rests horizontally when the
bowl is placed on a glass shelf)
on a round tipped bottom no bigger than the size and shape of the tip of a hen's
egg! This requires that the entire bowl have a symmetrical wall thickness
any substantial error! (With a base area so tiny - less than .15 square
inches - any asymmetry in a material as dense as granite would produce a lean in
the balance of the finished piece.) This kind
of skill will raise the eyebrows
of any machinist. To produce such a piece in clay would be very impressive. In
granite it is incredible.”
Figure 35. Description of
incredible machining accuracy in granite
objects include a ‘horn’ of schist, a brittle type of rock, machined to have
paper-thin edges, an asymmetric schist bowl with ‘lobes’ (an ancient propeller?)
and an ‘ornamental toilet tray’ of equal complexity. How did the ancient
Egyptians manufacture these, and why was the technology lost? It would be a
challenging task for any modern machinist working
with aluminium, not to mention
Figure 36. Schist horn with
paper-thin edges [GEP]
Figure 37. Tri-lobed schist
in Cairo Museum [Lawton and Ogilvie-Herald, Giza the Truth, John Reid]
Figure 38. Schist Bowl [Bodsworth, The Egypt Archive]
Figure 39. Schist bowl
Figure 40. ‘Ornamental toilet
representation of missing centre portion [Bodsworth, The Egypt Archive]
overview of ancient stone technology in Egypt can be found here. The images referenced as
[GEP] come from this website,
where many more examples and details regarding the pyramids and other structures
are presented. As summarized on this website, the technologies employed by the
Egyptians included the following:
- They had
tube drills - drill bits and the machinery to hold them steady and apply
- They had saws that would
cut granite with ease and
- They had the ability to sculpt the hardest of rocks.
- They were accomplished at finishing granite in situ - after a block had been
placed in a
wall or on the surface of a pyramid.
- They had the ability
to cut, level and polish granite to a sophisticated degree of flatness.
- They had lathes that would turn and polish
granite, schist, basalt, etc (in
ways we have not duplicated).
- They had the means to cut extremely
accurate parallel limestone joints with remarkable flatness over large surface
35 sq.ft.or more, and apparently had mastered the technique before
beginning the casing of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
- They had the
knowledge and technology to consistently lift, exactly
maneuver and delicately
place enormous weights of stone.
- They had the means and motivation to
quarry and move millions of stone blocks.
reliefs shown below
have been interpreted by many as some kind of a power tool
(a power drill?) or as ‘lights’. Whatever it represents, it does appear to be
some kind of instrument. It is possible that the serpent
symbols may indicate
‘serpent power’ and the size of the operators compared to the other human beings
suggests that the operators may have been regarded as ‘gods’ or ‘giants’.
Figure 41. Egyptian “Power Tools” [Childress,
Technology of the Gods]
Figure 42. “Dendera lights” [Ingold]
The photographs below
show imprints of what must certainly be
metal clamps intended to join these
blocks of stone. Scanning electron microscope studies have revealed that the
clamps were poured molten into the imprints, requiring a portable smelter, and a
spectrographic analysis of a clamp found in Bolivia revealed that it contained
1.7% nickel, of which there is no source in Bolivia.
Figure 43. Ancient metal clamps (TL Dendera Egypt, TR Angkor Wat
Cambodia, BL Tiahuanaco, BR
Ollantaytambo, Peru) [Hancock and Faiia, Heaven’s
Figure 44. Puma
Punku andesit stone block (note the clamp indentations)
Why was this
An extensive and well worth reading overview of
techniques that may have been used by Egyptians to work these stones can be
found here, under the topics
Rock Properties: Why the ancient Egyptians can carve rock
with stone and copper tools.
Ancient Egyptian Materials: Greywacke (schist)
Ancient Egyptian Stone Vessel Making
Ancient Egyptian Copper Slabbing Saws
Ancient Egyptian Copper Coring Drills
The Tomb of Sabu and the Tri-lobed Ornamental Bowl
Whether these methods could
realistically have been used as proposed will be
left for the reader to decide. The question nevertheless remains – why had this
technology been lost? Had it been invented by the Egyptians a couple
millennia ago, surely they would have continued improving these technologies in
much the same manner that integrated circuits (‘chips’) for computers and
numerous other modern sciences continue
to become more advanced with each
passing year. Why do foreigners today have to attempt to unravel the mysteries
of ancient Egyptian technologies if these had been invented by the Egyptians